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International journal of ecosystems and ecology science (IJEES) [Int. j. ecosyst. ecol. sci.]
Int. j. ecosyst. ecol. sci., Volume 2017; 7(2): 269–274
Abobakar Himat1, Selim Dogan1
1Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya 42031, Turkey;
ANCIENT KAREZ SYSTEM AS A SUSTAINABLE TOOL FOR IRRIGATION AND WATER SUPPLY IN RURAL AFGHANISTAN
Ancient Karez is sustainable and environmentally friend irrigation and water supply system in rural Afghanistan. By operating Karez system there would not be decline in underground water table. The water of Karez is fresher, cooler and cleaner; there is no need for any water treatment. Afghanistan has approximately 33 million population which most of them %80 live in rural regions. The rural inhabitants are poorer than the urban inhabitants. The life of rural inhabitants are dependent on agriculture and livestock. The inhabitants of rural communities use the Karez system for irrigation, livestock, drinking and domestic water use as well. Afghanistan is landlocked country and located in arid and semi-arid climate region. The south and southwestern of Afghanistan has arid climate, in these arid regions most of the Karez systems remained from ancient times, which some of them damaged and destroyed during the three decade of war and prolonged drought. For Karez viability there is need for adequate precipitation and suitable alluvial fan areas. Precipitation as snow melting during the year and feeds the mother well of Karez system. Karez is an ancient hydraulic engineering technology, which is common in arid climatic zones for irrigation and water supply purposes. Karez is hand-digging system, which is digs by professional Karez digging person (Karezkan). In rural communities, there is no modern water supply systems, inhabitants of rural communities have to manage water by their community’s rules. Some of them dig Karezes and wells for irrigation and domestic water supply. In this study, we assess the importance of Karez system in rural Afghanistan.